23/02/2014 § Leave a comment
one day i’ll be a good student
that day is not today
Didn’t I define “learned behaviour” last time?
DBQ page 238:
1. The first sonogram’s frequency is more stable and flat compared to the second sonogram. In the second sonogram, there is a long period of heavily fluctuating frequency compared to the short period of heavy fluctuation in the first sonogram towards the end of its song.
- a) The third sonogram’s pitch fluctuates less than the first two sonograms. The amplitude of the third sonogram is much thicker, meaning that the third song is louder than the other two songs.
- b) The song is both innate and learned. All of the white-bird sparrow populations will sing the same, if not a similar pattern as their song, which makes the song innate in the species. At the same time, there were some songs that were different, namely in the third sonogram with a different environment.
- a) Sonogram V holds similarities to the beginning portions of the first three sonograms. Sonogram V’s pitch fluctuations are more similar to those of sonogram IV, particularly in how they both slope downwards. By contrast, sonogram V has higher fluctuations than sonogram IV.
- b) The initial section of sonogram V is similar to the initial sections of sonogram I and II, where the song flatlines at a single pitch.
- c) Birds would normally stick to their own birdsong to stay safe within their own species. Unless they need to attract other species, which they don’t, birds use their songs to attract potential mates from their own species. They don’t sing other songs for fear of attracting competition and predators.
- d) These observations are evidence of learned development in birdsongs. Species are able to put aside its innate behaviour and learn something new based on environmental influences.
20/02/2014 § Leave a comment
If humans can identify each other and gorillas could identify each other, then would humans be to gorillas as gorillas are to humans? Discuss.
Words first, words words words. Innate behaviour is behaviour shown in all normal members of a species despite any variation in the environment. By contrast, learned behaviour is an alteration or modification of behaviour that is the result of experience.
DBQ page 326:
1. Another method to encourage the woodlice to move into one of the arms is to place food in one of the arms, which is a form of chemotaxis.
2. The data shows that most of the woodlice are attracted to the scented arm than to the unscented arm. Only a little over 30% moved into the unscented arm.
3. For the woodlice to receive smell and respond to it, they must have chemoreceptors that can react to the chemicals released by the smells.
- a) Woodlice would move to the scented arm because they know there are members of their own species there, and for survival and reproduction, that would mean that there are potential mates in that arm compared to the unscented arm. This means that woodlice might use scent for mating (to signal to each other their locations).
- b) Woodlice might move to the unscented arm to avoid competition and to survive by itself without reproduction. If large populations of the species tend to overpopulate, some woodlice may have learned to avoid their own species for a better chance of survival.
18/02/2014 § Leave a comment
Can you believe this is the last unit, ‘cause I sure can.
In E.1 we have a few words (okay, a lot of words) to remember but three important ones are stimulus, response, and reflex. The definition of stimulus is easy enough to remember if you remember your alphabet, specifically CDE. A stimulus is a Change in the internal/external environment that is Detected by a receptor and Elicits a response. EASY (I wish). A response is produced by a stimulus and produces a change in the organism. A reflex is a rapid, unconscious response to a stimulus. The elements of responses of animals to stimuli include not only receptors but all types of neurons (namely sensory neurons, relay neurons, and motor neurons), synapses, and effectors.
We also need to draw and label a diagram on the reflex arc for pain including the following elements (as well as most everything listed above):
- sensory pain signals enter dorsal root of spinal cord
- interneurons in spinal cord stimulate flexor motor neurons
- interneurons inhibit extensor motor neurons
- motor neurons exit spinal cord & stimulate flexor muscles
- extensor muscles relax
- withdrawal of leg
- neurotransmitter = acetylcholine
- bisynaptic reflex