28/11/2013 § Leave a comment
In the haze of tests, essays, tears, assessments, labs, and lots and lots of lists, I managed to write a haiku:
i just really hate
the education system.
and liver. that too.
26/11/2013 § Leave a comment
How many more days ’til Christmas, Santa?????
DATA BASED QUESTIONS
Page 248, medulla thickness and urine concentration
1. Discuss the relationship between the maximum solute concentration of urine and the habitat of the mammal. –> Disregarding Octomys mimax and the cat, animals in a dried habitat have a higher maximum solute concentration of urine. The Octomys mimax and cat have mOsm levels that suggest their maximum solute concentration of urine can compete with that of the other binomial creatures and that their bodies are developed to be able to withstand that environment.
2. Plot a scattergraph of the data in the table, either by hand or using a computer software.
- a) Using the scattergraph that you have plotted, state the relationship between RMT and the maximum solute concentration of the urine. –> RMT and MSC share a linear relationship. As one increases, the other also increases.
- b) Suggest how the thickness of the medulla could affect the maximum solute concentration of the urine. –> The loop of Henlé is responsible for creating a gradient of solute concentration in the medulla. The thickness of the medulla (RMT) would increase the membrane that solutes would have to pass through. This means that the urine that the loop of Henlé would filter would retain a high level of solute concentration.
25/11/2013 § 1 Comment
Guys, this Thursday is Thanksgiving and this Friday they’re handing out free pumpkin pie, how great is that!?
DATA BASED QUESTIONS
Page 244, blood supply to the kidney
1. Compare the rate of blood flow to the kidney with flow to the other organs. –> The kidney has the highest rate of blood flow than the other organs, by far. All other organs range below 100 ml min-1 100 g-1 but the kidney can support 420 ml per minute 100 g-1.
2. Calculate the volume of oxygen delivered to the organs per litre of blood. –> 576.7 total blood, 115.3 total oxygen. 115.3 ÷ 576.7 = 0.19 ml per litre of blood.
3. In the brain, 34% of the oxygen that is delivered is consumed. Calculate the same percentage for the other organs. –>
- skin: 0.38 ÷ 2.6 = 14.6%
- skeletal muscle (resting): 0.18 ÷ 0.5 = 36%
- heart muscle: 11.0 ÷ 17.4 = 63.2%
- kidney: 6.8 ÷ 84 = 8.1%
4. Discuss the reasons for the difference between the kidney and the other organs in the volume of blood flowing to the organ, and the percentage of oxygen in the blood that is consumed. –> Okay, I mean, we know that the purpose of the kidney is 1) excretion and 2) osmoregulation. For this to happen, a lot of the blood in the body needs to flow to the kidney. And, disregarding the kidney (which takes in a lot of oxygen that comes in the blood), the heart is the next organ to receive the most oxygen, understandably so because it frequently also pumps blood to the lungs in order to OXYGENISE that blood. The concentrations of oxygen and the amount of blood that flows into the organ differ depending on that organ’s function.
5. Some parts of the kidney have a higher percentage rate of oxygen consumption, for example the outer part of the medulla. This is because active processes requiring energy are being carried out. Suggest one process in the kidney that requires energy. –> Actiiiiiive traaaaanspooort!!!!
6. Predict, with a reason, one change in blood flow that would occur if the person were moved to a cold environment. –> If a person were moved to a cold environment, in order to maintain their core heat as a type of homeostatic response, the blood flow would slow down or stop flowing.
19/11/2013 § Leave a comment
DATA BASED QUESTIONS
1. Describe how the ability of a calf to absorb antibodies changes over the initial hours after birth. –> As time passes, the amount of antibodies absorb decreases. The decrease of antibodies is steep from 0 to about 4 hours, then less steep from 4 to 23-24 hours and afterwards, the decrease is almost like a plateau.
2. Suggest reasons for calves that have endured a long and difficult birth are more likely to suffer from infection. —> These calves are more prone to infection because of too much passing time. Not having antibodies present makes them more vulnerable to infections.
3. Predict how the concentration of antibodies might vary in the cow’s colostrum over the first 24 hours after birth. –> After 24 hours, the concentration of antibodies starts decreasing.
4. Deduce the reasons for vaccinating sheep against pulpy kidney and other life-threatening diseases three weeks before lambs are due to be born. –> Three weeks is the right amount of time to keep antigens in the body when the lambs first start nursing.
5. Explain which method of transport across membranes is likely to be used for absorption of antibodies in the stomach of newborn mammals. –> Since antibodies are large molecules (proteins), diffusion wouldn’t be enough to get them across a membrane, so they’d do active transport.
18/11/2013 § Leave a comment
But mommy, I don’t want to go to school today.
DATA BASED QUESTION
Page 233, use of monoclonal antibodies to diagnose pregnancy
1. Explain how a blue band appears at point C if the woman is pregnant. –> Okay, so a pregnant woman would produce the hormone HCG. Upon taking the pregnancy test, the antibodies in the test attached to enzymes bind to the HCG molecules. The urine necessary for the test continues to wash the HCG molecules up into the test zone (point C) where they will bind with other antibodies who, in response, will do a chemical reaction involving changing colour.
2. Explain why a blue band does not appear at point C if the woman is not pregnant. –> If a woman isn’t pregnant, though the urine still washes up the test to point C, there are no HCG hormone molecules that can bind to the antibodies in the pregnancy test that will cause the colour change reaction.
3. Explain the reasons for the use of immobilised monoclonal antibodies at point D, even thought they do not indicate whether a woman is pregnant or not. –> Point D is the control, which tells the user if the test worked or not. Whether or not the test is a positive or a negative, point D should always change colour.
13/11/2013 § Leave a comment
DATA BASED QUESTIONS
Page 227, skin pH
1. Compare the skin pH of neonates and adults. –> The skin of neonates generally have a higher pH level than that of adults. Adults’ skin has pH levels ranging between 5.5 to about 5.9 while neonates’ skin has pH levels ranging slightly above or below pH level 7.
2. Suggest how the adult skin pH might be established. –> Adults have thicker and tougher skin than infants which would provide more protection. Also, adults’ skin could have developed to become more acidic (lower pH) to protect from certain microorganisms.
3. Suggest why the use of soaps (which are basic) might have a more irritating effect on the skin of a neonate. –> Neonates already have a neutral level of pH (at around pH level 7) and adding substances that are more basic would harm their skin.
4. Deduce how basic soaps might undermine the skin’s defensive function. —> If there is bacteria on our skin, basic soaps could be used to kill that bacteria but overusing it would eventually result in our dependence of the substance and harm our skin.